Knowing surface temperatures of PV modules is critical to select encapsulants.


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Photovoltaic modules are exposed to extremely harsh conditions of heat, humidity, high voltage, mechanical stress, and UV. Current IEC qualification tests do not require UV exposure high enough to evaluate a lifespan of 20 years or more.
With xenon arc weathering technology, the effect on encapsulant materials of 20 years real-world exposure can be obtained in just over 6 months laboratory testing.

The Application Guide is a reprint of a paper by Michael D. Kempe, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, that addresses the following topics:

  • IEC UV preconditioning and xenon weathering
  • Real-world conditions for PV modules
  • Role and influence of different encapsulants
  • Effect of UV on lifetime of PV modules
  • Testing recommendations